Background: Poor diet may affect bone status by displacing nutrients involved in bone health. Dihydrophylloquinone, a form of vitamin K present in foods made with partially hydrogenated fat, is a potential marker of a low-quality dietary pattern.
Objective: Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional associations between dihydrophylloquinone intake and bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and spine in men and women.
Design: Dihydrophylloquinone intake was estimated with a food-frequency questionnaire, and BMD (in g/cm(2)) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 2544 men and women (mean age: 58.5 y) who had participated in the Framingham Offspring Study. General linear models were used to examine the associations between dihydrophylloquinone intake (in tertiles: <15.5, 15.5-29.5, and >29.5 microg/d) and hip and spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, energy intake, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, smoking status, physical activity score, and, for women, menopause status and estrogen use.
Results: Higher dihydrophylloquinone intakes were associated with lower mean BMD at the femoral neck [lowest-to-highest tertiles (95% CI): 0.934 (0.925, 0.942), 0.927 (0.919, 0.935), and 0.917 (0.908, 0.926), P for trend = 0.02], the trochanter [lowest-to-highest tertiles (95% CI): 0.811 (0.802, 0.820), 0.805 (0.797, 0.813), and 0.795 (0.786, 0.804), P for trend = 0.02], and the spine [lowest-to-highest tertiles (95% CI): 1.250 (1.236, 1.264), 1.243 (1.242, 1.229), and 1.227 (1.213, 1.242), P for trend = 0.03] in men and women after adjustment for the covariates. Further adjustment for markers of healthy and low-quality dietary patterns did not affect the observed associations.
Conclusions: Higher dihydrophylloquinone intakes are associated with lower BMD in men and women. This association remains significant after adjustment for other markers of diet quality.