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Review
. 2008 Apr;62(4):451-62.
doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602866. Epub 2007 Aug 8.

Direct and Indirect Cellular Effects of Aspartame on the Brain

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Review

Direct and Indirect Cellular Effects of Aspartame on the Brain

P Humphries et al. Eur J Clin Nutr. .

Abstract

The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are concerned about its negative effects. Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%). Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate, asparagines and glutamine are formed from their precursor, aspartic acid. Methanol, which forms 10% of the broken down product, is converted in the body to formate, which can either be excreted or can give rise to formaldehyde, diketopiperazine (a carcinogen) and a number of other highly toxic derivatives. Previously, it has been reported that consumption of aspartame could cause neurological and behavioural disturbances in sensitive individuals. Headaches, insomnia and seizures are also some of the neurological effects that have been encountered, and these may be accredited to changes in regional brain concentrations of catecholamines, which include norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. The aim of this study was to discuss the direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain, and we propose that excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000) and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning.

Comment in

  • Aspartame effects on the brain.
    Fernstrom JD. Fernstrom JD. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;63(5):698-9; author reply 695-8. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2008.5. Epub 2008 Jan 30. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009. PMID: 18231118 No abstract available.
  • There really is no controversy.
    Samuels A. Samuels A. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Aug;63(8):1044. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2008.38. Epub 2008 Jun 11. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009. PMID: 18545263 No abstract available.

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