The regulation of blood pressure is complex with several organs being involved. Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular functions: An increased influx of calcium into the vascular smooth muscle cells leads to an augmental muscular tone and therefore to an increased vascular resistance and rise in blood pressure. Parathormone plays a permissive role since it regulates the calcium-influx into the cells and thus increases the vasoconstrictive effect. There is a positive correlation between parathormone and blood pressure, present in primary as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism. Moreover, patients with essential hypertension have high parathormone levels already before hypertension is diagnosed. A calcium-rich diet (> 1000 mg calcium daily) slightly decreases blood pressure. This positive effect is due to parathormone suppression with a subsequently decreased calcium content in the vascular smooth muscle cells. A calcium-rich diet inhibits lipogenesis in the fat tissue; thus additionally improving the cardiovascular risk profile.