Feeding difficulties and growth delay in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome versus d-transposition of the great arteries

Pediatr Cardiol. 2008 Mar;29(2):328-33. doi: 10.1007/s00246-007-9027-9. Epub 2007 Aug 9.


The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of feeding difficulties in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). Congenital heart disease is a risk factor for growth failure. The etiologies include poor caloric intake, inability to utilize calories effectively, and increased metabolic demands. The goals of our study were to (1) identify feeding difficulties in infants with HLHS and d-TGA and (2) assess their growth in the first year of life. We performed a chart review of 27 consecutive infants with HLHS and 26 with d-TGA. Descriptive statistics were generated for demographic and clinical variables within each group and are presented as means +/- standard deviations. HLHS and d-TGA groups were compared on time to achieving nutritional goals using the log rank test, on complication rate using the chi-square test, and on weight using the t-test. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. Birth weight was similar for both the HLHS and d-TGA groups (3.19 +/- 0.69 vs 3.35 +/- 0.65 kg, respectively; p = 0.38). Infants with HLHS weighed less than those with d-TGA at l month (3.29 +/- 0.58 vs 3.70 +/- 0.60 kg, respectively; p = 0.021), 6 months (6.27 +/- 1.06 vs 7.31 +/- 1.02 kg, p = 0.003), and 12 months of age (8.40 +/- 1.11 vs 9.49 +/- 1.01 kg, p = 0.006). Time to achieving full caloric intake (at least 100 kcal/kg/day) for the HLHS group (24 +/- 11.9 days) was significantly longer than for the d-TGA group (12.0 +/- 11.2 days, p < 0.001). In addition, infants with HLHS had a higher incidence of feeding-related complications that those with d-TGA (48 vs 4%, respectively; p = 0.001). Compared to the d-TGA group, infants with HLHS weighed less at follow-up, took longer to reach nutritional goals, and had a much higher incidence of feeding-related complications.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Body Weight
  • Enteral Nutrition / methods*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / complications*
  • Infant
  • Infant Nutrition Disorders / epidemiology
  • Infant Nutrition Disorders / etiology*
  • Infant Nutrition Disorders / prevention & control
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intubation, Gastrointestinal / methods*
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • Transposition of Great Vessels / complications*