Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder that has a considerable impact on the health of the elderly. Although oxidative stress has been implicated in the early stage of this disease, its detailed pathogenesis and therapeutic targets remain unknown. The diagnosis, particularly at the early stage, is important. In the present study, the levels of potential biomarkers such as total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE) and oxidatively modified peroxiredoxin (oxPrx)-2 and oxPrx-6 in plasma and/or erythrocytes were determined by a GC-MS apparatus and by two-dimensional electrophoresis, respectively. It was found that these levels in AD patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. Furthermore, the tHODE levels increased with increasing clinical dementia ratings. Interestingly, vascular dementia patients could be distinguished by the correlation between plasma and erythrocyte tHODE levels or by that of tHODE with oxPrx in erythrocytes. These data further support that oxidative stress is indeed involved in AD and that the correlative measures of tHODE and oxPrx are potential biomarkers for its diagnosis.