Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), a native plant from Brazil, have been used as an antipyretic, stomachic and health tonic in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential mutagenic effect of B. dracunculifolia ethyl acetate extract (Bd-EAE) and its influence on the mutagenicity induced by the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DXR) using the rat bone marrow and peripheral blood micronucleus test. Wistar rats were divided into 10 treatment groups. Five groups received DXR (90 mg/kg body weight, b.w., intraperitoneally) to induce mutagenicity and three of these groups received a single oral dose of Bd-EAE at a concentration of 6, 12 or 24 mg/kg b.w. prior to DXR administration. A vehicle-treated control group and Bd-EAE control groups were also included. The results showed that Bd-EAE itself was not mutagenic, in the rat micronucleus assay. In animals treated with Bd-EAE and DXR, the number of MNPCEs was significantly decreased compared to animals receiving DXR alone. HPLC analysis of the extract obtained permitted the identification of the following phenolic compounds: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, aromadendrin-4'O-methyl ether, 3-prenyl-p-coumaric acid (drupanin), 3,5-diprenyl-p-coumaric acid (artepillin C) and baccharin. The putative antioxidant activity or the interference of one or more of the active compounds of Bd-EAE with mutagenic metabolic pathways may explain its effect on DXR mutagenicity.