Background: We have recently begun to doubt the effectiveness of periodic sharp wave complexes observed on electroencephalographs and the detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as diagnostic criteria for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and the detection of total tau (t-tau) protein in CSF may be more sensitive diagnostic criteria.
Methods: Among 44 CJD patients, we selected 21 subjects that suffered from early-stage CJD, which was defined as cases in the 6 weeks following the onset of the disease. The sensitivities of DWI and electroencephalographs, as well as those of t-tau protein, 14-3-3 protein, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and S-100b protein in CSF were compared as diagnostic markers for early-stage CJD.
Results: NSE, S-100b protein, t-tau protein, and 14-3-3 protein were detected in the samples from 57.1, 4.8, 95.2, and 76.2% of the 21 early-stage CJD patients, respectively. Additionally, DWI was used to positively identify 90.5% of these cases.
Conclusion: We concluded that t-tau protein was the most sensitive of the diagnostic markers for CJD. Moreover, the data in this study showed that detection of t-tau protein combined with DWI identified 98% of the early-stage cases, and these tests should be included as diagnostic criteria for CJD.
2007 S. Karger AG, Basel