The neuropsychology of amphetamine and opiate dependence: implications for treatment

Neuropsychol Rev. 2007 Sep;17(3):317-36. doi: 10.1007/s11065-007-9033-y. Epub 2007 Aug 10.


Chronic use of amphetamines and/or opiates has been associated with a wide range of cognitive deficits, involving domains of attention, inhibitory control, planning, decision-making, learning and memory. Although both amphetamine and opiate users show marked impairment in various aspects of cognitive function, the impairment profile is distinctly different according to the substance of abuse. In light of evidence showing that cognitive impairment in drug users has a negative impact on treatment engagement and efficacy, we review substance-specific deficits on executive and memory function, and discuss possibilities to address these during treatment intervention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amphetamine-Related Disorders / complications*
  • Amphetamine-Related Disorders / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Learning Disabilities / drug therapy
  • Learning Disabilities / etiology*
  • Memory Disorders / drug therapy
  • Memory Disorders / etiology*
  • Neuropsychology*
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / complications*
  • Opioid-Related Disorders / drug therapy
  • Problem Solving / drug effects
  • Problem Solving / physiology