Comparative immunogenicity of trivalent influenza vaccine administered by intradermal or intramuscular route in healthy adults

Vaccine. 2007 Sep 17;25(37-38):6755-63. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.06.066. Epub 2007 Jul 26.


The present study was undertaken with controls using equal doses ID and IM plus the standard full dose IM to assess the role of route of vaccine in immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine. The study was a prospective, randomized, active-controlled, open label clinical trial conducted in healthy young adult outpatients to compare the effect of route (IM versus ID) on antibody responses to influenza vaccine. Volunteers received 3, 6 or 9 microg of vaccine by ID or IM route; 15 microg IM was also studied. Low doses of vaccine given by either route were almost as immunogenic as the standard 15 microg IM dose of influenza vaccine. ID route was not superior to IM vaccine at inducing antibodies. ID vaccine induced significantly more local inflammatory response than IM vaccine.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antibodies, Viral / immunology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • Female
  • Health*
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / pharmacology
  • Injections, Intradermal / adverse effects
  • Injections, Intramuscular / adverse effects
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Titrimetry


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines