Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) noninvasively depicts white matter connectivity in regions where the Gaussian model of diffusion is valid but yields inaccurate results in those where diffusion has a more complex distribution, such as fiber crossings. q-ball imaging (QBI) overcomes this limitation of DTI by more fully characterizing the angular dependence of intravoxel diffusion with larger numbers of diffusion-encoding directional measurements at higher diffusion-weighting factors (b values). However, the former technique results in longer acquisition times and the latter technique results in a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this project, we developed specialized 7-T acquisition methods utilizing novel radiofrequency pulses, eight-channel parallel imaging EPI and high-order shimming with a phase-sensitive multichannel B0 field map reconstruction. These methods were applied in initial healthy adult volunteer studies, which demonstrated the feasibility of performing 7-T QBI. Preliminary comparisons of 3 T with 7 T within supratentorial crossing white matter tracts documented a 79.5% SNR increase for b=3000 s/mm2 (P=.0001) and a 38.6% SNR increase for b=6000 s/mm2 (P=.015). With spherical harmonic reconstruction of the q-ball orientation distribution function at b=3000 s/mm2, 7-T QBI allowed for accurate visualization of crossing fiber tracts with fewer diffusion-encoding acquisitions as compared with 3-T QBI. The improvement of 7-T QBI at b factors as high as 6000 s/mm2 resulted in better angular resolution as compared with 3-T QBI for depicting fibers crossing at shallow angles. Although the increased susceptibility effects at 7 T caused problematic distortions near brain-air interfaces at the skull base and posterior fossa, these initial 7-T QBI studies demonstrated excellent quality in much of the supratentorial brain, with significant improvements as compared with 3-T acquisitions in the same individuals.