Transgender feminization of the facial skeleton

Clin Plast Surg. 2007 Jul;34(3):557-64. doi: 10.1016/j.cps.2007.04.009.


In transsexualism, there is a strong and ongoing cross-gender identification, and a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite gender; thus there is a wish for somatic treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with gender identity. Makeup and change in hairstyle and accessories further feminize the face, and in time, most persons became more adapted to their life as a member of the opposite gender. There is a need for more objective standardization of the differences in the facial features of the two sexes, to facilitate surgical treatment planning and more objectively assess the outcome of the facial surgery on psychosocial functioning and appearance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Facial Bones
  • Female
  • Feminization
  • Forehead / surgery
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mandible / surgery*
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteotomy
  • Transsexualism
  • Zygoma / surgery