A review of the literature on the effectiveness of housing and support, assertive community treatment, and intensive case management interventions for persons with mental illness who have been homeless

Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2007 Jul;77(3):350-61. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.77.3.350.


A review of 16 controlled outcome evaluations of housing and support interventions for people with mental illness who have been homeless revealed significant reductions in homelessness and hospitalization and improvements in other outcomes (e.g., well-being) resulting from programs that provided permanent housing and support, assertive community treatment (ACT), and intensive case management (ICM). The best outcomes for housing stability were found for programs that combined housing and support (effect size = .67), followed by ACT alone (effect size = .47), while the weakest outcomes were found for ICM programs alone (effect size = .28). The results of this review were discussed in terms of their implications for policy, practice, and future research.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Assertiveness*
  • Case Management*
  • Community Mental Health Services / organization & administration*
  • Housing*
  • Humans
  • Ill-Housed Persons* / psychology
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Mental Disorders / therapy*
  • Social Support*