Objective: To evaluate the influence of the crown-to-implant ratio (C/I) ratio and different implant prosthetic treatment modalities on crestal bone loss around dental implants placed in the posterior region.
Material and methods: A total of 192 ITI dental implants were consecutively placed in premolars and molars of 83 partially edentulous patients. All implants were restored by means of ceramic-to-metal fused fixed partial dentures or a single crown. Patients were followed as part of a prospective longitudinal study focusing on implant success. Surgical, radiographic and clinical variables were collected at the 1-year recall after implant placement and at the most recent clinical evaluation. Radiographic parameters were evaluated on periapical radiographs taken with a standardized long-cone paralleling technique. Implant restorations were divided into three groups according to their respective clinical C/I ratios: (a) 0-0.99, (b) 1-1.99 and (c) >or=2.
Results: The mean clinical C/I ratio was 1.77+/-0.56 mm. A total of 51 implants (26.5%) showed a clinical C/I ratio equal to or greater than 2. In this group, three implants failed, giving a cumulative survival rate of 94.1%. Crestal bone loss was -0.34+/-0.27 mm in group a, -0.03+/-0.15 mm in group b and -0.02+/-0.26 mm in group c. Differences among groups were statistically significant (P=0.009). Mode of retention, splinting or presence of cantilever extensions did not have an effect on crestal bone loss around ITI dental implants.
Conclusions: Implant restorations with C/I ratios between 2 and 3 may be successfully used in the posterior areas of the jaw.