Foods that are high in citrate content generally are assumed to deliver alkali load when consumed irrespective of the accompanying cation. The object of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effects of orange juice with those of lemonade on acid-base profile and urinary stone risks under controlled metabolic conditions. Thirteen volunteers (nine healthy subjects and four stone formers) sequentially received distilled water, orange juice, or lemonade while on constant metabolic diet. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected for acid-base parameters and stone risk analysis. Orange juice but not lemonade provided alkali as evidenced by higher net gastrointestinal alkali absorption and higher urinary pH and citrate compared with control. Urinary calcium was not significantly different, but urinary oxalate was higher during the orange juice phase. The calculated supersaturation of calcium oxalate was lower in the orange juice phase compared with control. Calculated undissociated uric acid was lower in the orange juice phase compared with both control and lemonade phases. The calculated supersaturation of brushite was significantly higher in the orange juice phase compared with both control and lemonade phases. Despite comparable citrate content, this study showed that orange juice has greater alkalinizing and citraturic effects than lemonade. Consumption of orange juice was associated with lower calculated calcium oxalate supersaturation and lower calculated undissociated uric acid. This short-term study suggests that orange juice consumption could result in biochemical modification of stone risk factors; however, additional studies are needed to evaluate its role in long-term prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis.