Brain glucose sensing, counterregulation, and energy homeostasis

Physiology (Bethesda). 2007 Aug;22:241-51. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00010.2007.


Neuronal circuits in the central nervous system play a critical role in orchestrating the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Glucose, beside being a nutrient, is also a signal detected by several glucose-sensing units that are located at different anatomical sites and converge to the hypothalamus to cooperate with leptin and insulin in controlling the melanocortin pathway.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Appetite Regulation / physiology
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Homeostasis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamus / physiology*
  • Insulin / physiology
  • Leptin / physiology
  • Melanocortins / physiology


  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Melanocortins
  • Glucose