Modifiers of long-term school outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: does treatment with stimulant medication make a difference? Results from a population-based study

J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):274-87. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3180cabc28.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the significance of potential modifiers of long-term school outcomes among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), including treatment with stimulant medication.

Methods: Subjects included 370 children with research-identified AD/HD from a 1976-1982 population-based birth cohort (N = 5718). In a companion study, the complete school record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on reading achievement, absenteeism, grade retention, and school dropout. Data on type of stimulant, dose, age at initiation of treatment, and start/stop dates were collected from medical and school records, available for all subjects.

Results: Treatment with stimulants was associated with decreased rates of absenteeism; longer duration of treatment was also associated with decreased absenteeism rates. There was a modest positive correlation (r = .15, p = .012) between average daily stimulant dose and last reading score. Cases treated with stimulants were 1.8 times less likely to subsequently be retained a grade (95% confidence interval: 1.01-3.2; p = .047). The proportion of school dropout was similar between treated and not treated cases (22.2% vs 25.8%, p = .54). Other potential modifiers of school outcomes (sociodemographic risk factors, presence of comorbid learning or psychiatric disorders, and receipt of special educational services) were also examined and found to be associated with poorer outcomes.

Conclusions: In this birth cohort, stimulant treatment of children with AD/HD was associated with improved reading achievement, decreased school absenteeism, and decreased grade retention. This study provides support for efforts to ensure that children with AD/HD receive appropriate long-term medical treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Achievement*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / drug therapy*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / epidemiology
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methylphenidate / therapeutic use*
  • Population Surveillance / methods
  • Time Factors


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Methylphenidate