Cigarette smoking and risk of breast carcinoma in situ

Epidemiology. 2007 Sep;18(5):629-38. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e318127183a.


Background: Although the associations with cigarette smoking have been explored extensively for invasive breast cancer, the relation to in situ cancer has not previously been examined in depth.

Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of women living in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. Eligible cases of incident breast carcinoma in situ were reported to statewide registries in 1997-2001 (n = 1878); similarly aged controls (n = 8041) were randomly selected from population lists. Smoking history and other risk factor information were collected through structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated from logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: In multivariate models, the OR for breast carcinoma in situ among current smokers was 0.8, compared with never-smokers (95% CI = 0.7-1.0). Risk estimates increased towards the null with greater time since smoking cessation. Odds ratios were also less than 1.0 among women who initiated smoking in adolescence (OR = 0.8) or after a full-term birth (OR = 0.7), relative to women who never smoked. The reduced odds ratios associated with current smoking were strongest among women with annual screening mammograms (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.9). Odds ratios were not less than 1.0 among current smokers without a recent screening mammogram (1.3; 0.9-2.0).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest an inverse association between current smoking and risk of breast carcinoma in situ among women undergoing breast cancer screening.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Breast Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma in Situ / etiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Logistic Models
  • Mammography
  • Middle Aged
  • Registries
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking Cessation / statistics & numerical data
  • United States / epidemiology