Background: Previous studies on visual function in craniosynostosis have mainly focused on ocular movements and ophthalmologic findings. More recently, some studies also included the assessment of more functional and electrophysiological aspects of vision, such as acuity and visual evoked potentials.
Methods: We reviewed all the relevant publications on visual findings in infants and children with both syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and reported our own recent experience on the presurgical assessment of visual function in infants with single suture nonsyndromic craniosynostosis.
Results: Most studies report abnormal ophthalmologic findings, mainly strabismus and refractive deficits. Only few recent studies, including ours, have reported the impairment of more functional aspects of vision, such as visual acuity and visual evoked potentials in relation to the various forms of craniosynostoses.
Discussion: We suggest a few guidelines for further studies, which may help to better elucidate the mechanisms underlying possible visual impairment in the various types of craniosynostosis.