A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between the consumption of local common foods that are rich in vitamin A and the risk of lung cancer in Taiwan. A total of 301 incident lung cancer cases, 602 hospital controls, and 602 neighborhood controls were recruited. The consumption of 13 food items and vitamin supplements was estimated by use of a food frequency questionnaire. The conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk with each control group as reference by adjustment of covariates. A reduced risk for lung cancer was found to be associated with increased intakes of vitamin A, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene from 13 food items. More servings of vegetables (AOR for the highest versus the lowest quartile = 0.67-0.70, 95% CI = 0.42-1.08, (plinear trend )= 0.04), garland chrysanthemum (AOR for the highest versus the lowest tertile = 0.58-0.74, 95% CI = 0.37-1.14, (plinear trend )<= 0.04) and sweet potato leaves (AOR for the highest versus the lowest tertile = 0.43-0.65, 95% CI = 0.28-0.96, (plinear trend )<= 0.03) were associated with the reduced risk for lung cancer. In conclusion, higher consumption of vitamin A-rich vegetables, especially garland chrysanthemum and sweet potato leaves might provide potential protection from lung cancer.