Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common disease with numerous complications. Bariatric surgery is an efficient procedure for controlling T2DM in morbidly obese patients. In T2DM, the incretin effect is either greatly impaired or absent. This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary results from interposing a segment of ileum into the proximal jejunum associated with a sleeve or diverted sleeve gastrectomy to control T2DM in patients with a body mass index (BMI) less than 35 kg/m(2).
Methods: For this study, 39 patients (16 women and 23 men) underwent two laparoscopic procedures comprising different combinations of ileal interposition into the proximal jejunum via a sleeve or diverted sleeve gastrectomy. The mean age of these patients was 50.3 years (range, 36-66 years). The mean BMI was 30.1 kg/m(2) (range, 23.4-34.9 kg/m(2)). All the patients had a diagnosis of T2DM that had persisted for at least 3 years and evidence of stable treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin for at least 12 months. The mean duration of T2DM was 9.3 years (range, 3-22 years).
Results: The mean operative time was 185 min, and the median hospital stay was 4.3 days. Four major complications occurred in the short term (30-days), and the mortality rate was 2.6%. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 7 months (range, 4-16 months), and the mean percentage of weight loss was 22%. The mean postoperative BMI was 24.9 kg/m(2) (range, 18.9-31.7 kg/m(2)). An adequate glycemic control was achieved for 86.9% of the patients, and 13.1% had important improvement. The patients whose glycemia was not normalized were using a single oral hypoglycemic agent. No patient needed insulin therapy postoperatively. All the patients except experienced normalization of their cholesterol levels. Targeted triglycerides levels were achieved by 71% of the patients, and hypertension was controlled for 95.8%.
Conclusions: The laparoscopic ileal interposition via either a sleeve gastrectomy or diverted sleeve gastrectomy seems to be a promising procedure for the control of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome. A longer follow-up period is needed.