Although alcohol abuse is highly prevalent in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the relationship between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior in these settings. An understanding of this relationship is particularly important given the high prevalence of HIV that exists in many of these countries. This study analyzes data collected from members of cohabiting HIV-discordant couples regarding alcohol consumption and self-reported condom use. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic co-factors, alcohol use by male partners of HIV-discordant couples was associated with self-reported unprotected sex at follow-up. Counseling about alcohol use should be part of HIV testing and counseling programs, particularly among those found to be HIV-positive.