Further Data on the Production of Beauvericin, Enniatins and Fusaproliferin and Toxicity to Artemia Salina by Fusarium Species of Gibberella Fujikuroi Species Complex

Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 Sep 15;118(2):158-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.07.004. Epub 2007 Jul 13.


The knowledge of toxigenic profiles of fungal plant pathogens is of extreme importance for evaluating the potential toxicity of infected plant products. Ninety-six fungal isolates belonging to 28 species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex were studied for the production of beauvericin, enniatins and fusaproliferin in rice cultures. Toxin production ranged from 5 to 3000 microg/g for beauvericin, 2 to 131 microg/g for enniatins, and 4 to 440 microg/g for fusaproliferin. Beauvericin was the most common metabolite produced by 16 species followed by fusaproliferin with 11 species and enniatins with 4 species. The production of beauvericin by F. bulbicola, F. denticulatum, F. lactis, F. phyllophilum, F. pseudocircinatum, and F. succisae and fusaproliferin by F. antophilum, F. begoniae, F. bulbicola, F. circinatum, F. concentricum, F. succisae, and F. udum is reported here for the first time. Brine shrimp larvae were most sensitive to culture extracts of F. acutatum (up to 94+/-3%), F. concentricum (up to 99+/-1%), F. denticuatum (up to 100%) and F. sacchari (up to 100%). Toxicity towards brine shrimp was significantly correlated with the beauvericin content of the fungal extracts with few exceptions. These data indicate that beauvericin and fusaproliferin are common metabolites of species of the G. fujikuroi complex and pose a risk for a possible toxin accumulation in their respective host plant products. However, data from the brine shrimp bioassay showed that further toxic metabolites within this complex need to be characterized.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Artemia / drug effects*
  • Artemia / growth & development
  • Artemia / microbiology
  • Biological Assay
  • Depsipeptides / biosynthesis
  • Depsipeptides / pharmacology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Food Microbiology*
  • Fusarium / metabolism
  • Fusarium / pathogenicity
  • Gibberella / metabolism*
  • Gibberella / pathogenicity*
  • Mycotoxins / biosynthesis
  • Mycotoxins / pharmacology*
  • Oryza / microbiology
  • Species Specificity


  • Depsipeptides
  • Mycotoxins
  • enniatins
  • beauvericin