Reported estrone pKa and solubility data show wide variation. Improved experimental procedures were designed and used to obtain reproducible results. The pKa values for several estrogens and related compounds also were determined to assess the effects of structural differences on ionization. No evidence was obtained for long-range D to A ring electronic transmission affecting pKa. Significant differences in pKa values resulted only when conjugated unsaturation was added into the B ring of estrone or estradiol. The aqueous solubilities of estrone and 17alpha-estradiol were 0.8 and 3.9 microgram/ml, respectively, at 25degrees.