Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that seldom occurs in prepuberal girls or postmenopausal women, suggesting a hormonal component in its aetiology. The precise mechanisms by which BV arises are not fully understood. One proposed mechanism suggests that carcinogenic nitrosamines act either independently or via human papilloma virus (HPV). Human papillomavirus is known to be associated with the development of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). Still today the relationship between BV and SIL is debated. Many confounding factors regarding the relationship between BV and SIL include the presence of HPV and/or other sexually transmitted diseases. In a case-controlled study the correlation between BV, SIL and the presence of HPV was evaluated. BV was diagnosed according to standard criteria: vaginal pH > 4.5; positive amine test or 'whiff' test; presence of clue cells and abnormal discharge. High risk-HPV testing by PCR was performed. X2 Pearson analysis was applied for statistical evaluation of data. The results of the study have shown that BV is not associated with SIL.