We retrospectively investigated the impact of pancreas transplantation on cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Two cohorts of patients, 44 simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant patients (SPK) and 30 kidney transplant-alone patients (KTA), were included. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Compared with KTA patients, SPK patients had significantly lower mean arterial pressure (88.5+/-12.7 vs. 98.2+/-13.0 mmHg, P=0.002), lower pulse pressure (51.6+/-15.1 vs. 61.4+/-15.6 mmHg, P=0.008), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (83.5+/-20.6 vs. 99.2+/-32.5 mg/dl, P=0.02), and required fewer lipid-lowering medications (31.8% vs. 60.0%, P=0.02). Compared with pretransplant values, only SPK patients showed significant improvement in both blood pressure and total cholesterol. We conclude that SPK significantly improves blood pressure and dyslipidemia compared with KTA in type 1 diabetic ESRD patients.