The Open Access Series of Imaging Studies is a series of magnetic resonance imaging data sets that is publicly available for study and analysis. The initial data set consists of a cross-sectional collection of 416 subjects aged 18 to 96 years. One hundred of the included subjects older than 60 years have been clinically diagnosed with very mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. The subjects are all right-handed and include both men and women. For each subject, three or four individual T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained in single imaging sessions are included. Multiple within-session acquisitions provide extremely high contrast-to-noise ratio, making the data amenable to a wide range of analytic approaches including automated computational analysis. Additionally, a reliability data set is included containing 20 subjects without dementia imaged on a subsequent visit within 90 days of their initial session. Automated calculation of whole-brain volume and estimated total intracranial volume are presented to demonstrate use of the data for measuring differences associated with normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.