Nanostructured materials possess unique capabilities for specific interactions with biological entities. This article reviews several types of nanostructured ceramics, cements and coatings that are being considered for use in medical applications. The processing methods for obtaining ceramics are presented and related to the properties (such as wettability, topography and charge) that directly affect interactions with biological entities (ions, biomacromolecules and cells). The literature reviewed demonstrates that these interactions are directly affected by the nanostructure of the ceramic surfaces. Thus, the understanding and control of the interactions between nanoceramics and biological entities may play one of the leading roles in the development of nanomedicine.