High levels of growth factors in human breast milk

Early Hum Dev. 2008 Jan;84(1):67-9. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2007.07.005. Epub 2007 Aug 22.


We found very high concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatic growth factor, and epidermal growth factor in early breast milk samples obtained from healthy mothers of term infants. This is the first report of simultaneous measurements of three major gastrointestinal trophic substances in human milk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis*
  • Female
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Milk, Human / chemistry*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis*


  • HGF protein, human
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor