Three Rab GTPases, Rab1, Rab2 and Rab6, are involved in protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. Whereas Rab1 regulates the anterograde ER-to-Golgi transport, Rab2 and Rab6 coordinate the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport. We have previously demonstrated that Rab1 differentially modulates the export trafficking of distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this report, we determined the role of Rab2 and Rab6 in the cell-surface expression and signaling of alpha(2B)-adrenergic (alpha(2B)-AR), beta(2)-AR and angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1R). Expression of the GTP-bound mutant Rab2Q65L significantly attenuated the cell-surface expression of both alpha(2B)-AR and beta(2)-AR, whereas the GTP-bound mutant Rab6Q72L selectively inhibited the transport of beta(2)-AR, but not alpha(2B)-AR. Similar results were obtained by siRNA-mediated selective knockdown of endogenous Rab2 and Rab6. Consistently, Rab2Q65L and Rab2 siRNA inhibited alpha(2B)-AR and beta(2)-AR signaling measured as ERK1/2 activation and cAMP production, respectively, whereas Rab6Q72L and Rab6 siRNA reduced signaling of beta(2)-AR, but not alpha(2B)-AR. Similar to the beta(2)-AR, AT1R expression at the cell surface and AT1R-promoted inositol phosphate accumulation were inhibited by Rab6Q72L. Furthermore, the nucleotide-free mutant Rab6N126I selectively attenuated the cell-surface expression of beta(2)-AR and AT1R, but not alpha(2B)-AR. These data demonstrate that Rab2 and Rab6 differentially influence anterograde transport and signaling of GPCRs. These data also provide the first evidence indicating that Rab6-coordinated retrograde transport selectively modulates intracellular trafficking and signaling of GPCRs.