Tumour vascularization: sprouting angiogenesis and beyond

Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007 Dec;26(3-4):489-502. doi: 10.1007/s10555-007-9094-7.


Tumour angiogenesis is a fast growing domain in tumour biology. Many growth factors and mechanisms have been unravelled. For almost 30 years, the sprouting of new vessels out of existing ones was considered as an exclusive way of tumour vascularisation. However, over the last years several additional mechanisms have been identified. With the discovery of the contribution of intussusceptive angiogenesis, recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells, vessel co-option, vasculogenic mimicry and lymphangiogenesis to tumour growth, anti-tumour targeting strategies will be more complex than initially thought. This review highlights these processes and intervention as a potential application in cancer therapy. It is concluded that future anti-vascular therapies might be most beneficial when based on multimodal anti-angiogenic, anti-vasculogenic mimicry and anti-lymphangiogenic strategies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endothelial Cells / cytology
  • Humans
  • Lymphangiectasis
  • Neoplasms / blood supply*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / etiology*
  • Stem Cells / physiology
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology


  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A