Variants of three genes encoding alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALDH2 and the alcohol dehydrogenase genes ADH1B and ADH1C, have been associated with reduced rates of alcohol dependence. The genotype prevalence of these genes varies in general samples of different Asian ethnic groups. The ALDH2*2 allele appears to be most prevalent in Chinese-American, Han Chinese and Taiwanese, Japanese, and Korean samples. Much lower rates have been reported in Thais, Filipinos, Indians, and Chinese and Taiwanese aborigines. ADH1B*2 is highly prevalent among Asians, with the exception of Indians. ADH1C*1 also is highly prevalent in Asians, but has only been examined in a few studies of Chinese and Korean samples.