Longitudinal patterns of youth access to cigarettes and smoking progression: Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) study (2000-2003)

Prev Med. 2007 Dec;45(6):442-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.07.016. Epub 2007 Jul 19.


Objectives: To measure community-level changes in the methods youth use to obtain cigarettes over time and to relate these methods to the progression of smoking.

Methods: We analyzed 2000-2003 data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort study, where youth (beginning at age 12), who were living in Minnesota at baseline, were surveyed every 6 months via telephone. We conducted mixed model repeated measures logistic regression to obtain probabilities of cigarette access methods among past 30-day smokers (n=340 at baseline).

Results: The probability of obtaining cigarettes from a commercial source in the past month declined from 0.36 at baseline to 0.22 at the sixth survey point while the probability of obtaining cigarettes from a social source during the previous month increased from 0.54 to 0.76 (p for both trends=0.0001). At the community level, the likelihood of adolescents obtaining cigarettes from social sources was inversely related to the likelihood of progressing to heavy smoking (p<0.001).

Conclusions: During this time, youth shifted to greater reliance on social sources and less on commercial sources. A trend toward less commercial access to cigarettes accompanied by an increase in social access may translate to youth being less likely to progress to heavier smoking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Health Promotion / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Minnesota
  • Minors / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Smoking Prevention
  • Social Facilitation
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / prevention & control