Antigenic Differences Among Newcastle Disease Virus Strains of Different Genotypes Used in Vaccine Formulation Affect Viral Shedding After a Virulent Challenge

Vaccine. 2007 Oct 10;25(41):7238-46. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.017. Epub 2007 Aug 3.


Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be separated into genotypes based on genome differences even though they are antigenically considered to be of a single serotype. It is widely recognized that an efficacious Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine made with any NDV does induce protection against morbidity and mortality from a virulent NDV challenge. However, those ND vaccines do not protect vaccinates from infection and viral shed from such a challenge. Vaccines prepared from ND viruses corresponding to five different genotypes were compared to determine if the phylogenetic distance between vaccine and challenge strain influences the protection induced and the amount of challenge virus shed. Six groups of 4-week-old specific pathogen-free Leghorn chickens were given oil-adjuvanted vaccines prepared from one of five different inactivated ND viruses including strains B1, Ulster, CA02, Pigeon84, Alaska 196, or an allantoic fluid control. Three weeks post-vaccination, serum was analyzed for antibody content using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against each of the vaccine antigens and a commercial NDV ELISA. After challenge with virulent CA02, the birds were examined daily for morbidity and mortality and were monitored at selected intervals for virus shedding. All vaccines except for the control induced greater than 90% protection to clinical disease and mortality. The vaccine homologous with the challenge virus reduced oral shedding significantly more than the heterologous vaccines. NDV vaccines formulated to be phylogenetically closer to potential outbreak viruses may provide better ND control by reducing virus transmission from infected birds.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antigens, Viral / genetics
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology*
  • Chickens
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Genome, Viral / genetics
  • Genotype
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mouth / virology
  • Newcastle Disease / immunology
  • Newcastle Disease / mortality
  • Newcastle Disease / physiopathology
  • Newcastle Disease / prevention & control*
  • Newcastle disease virus / classification
  • Newcastle disease virus / genetics
  • Newcastle disease virus / immunology*
  • Phylogeny
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
  • Survival Analysis
  • Viral Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*
  • Virus Shedding / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Viral Proteins
  • Viral Vaccines

Associated data

  • GENBANK/EF520714
  • GENBANK/EF520715
  • GENBANK/EF520716
  • GENBANK/EF520717
  • GENBANK/EF520718
  • GENBANK/EF612277