Stigma and the military: evaluation of a PTSD psychoeducational program

J Trauma Stress. 2007 Aug;20(4):505-15. doi: 10.1002/jts.20233.


Trauma risk management (TRiM) is an intensive posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychoeducational management strategy based on peer-group risk assessment developed by the UK Royal Navy (RN). TRiM seeks to modify attitudes about PTSD, stress, and help-seeking and trains military personnel to identify at-risk individuals and refer them for early intervention. This quasiexperimental study found that TRiM training significantly improved attitudes about PTSD, stress, and help-seeking from TRiM-trained personnel. There was a nonsignificant effect on attitudes to seeking help from normal military support networks and on general health. Within both the military and civilian populations, stigma is a serious issue preventing help-seeking and reducing quality of life. The results suggest that TRiM is a promising antistigma program within organizational settings.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Combat Disorders / diagnosis
  • Combat Disorders / psychology
  • Combat Disorders / therapy*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Military Personnel / psychology*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / psychology*
  • Patient Education as Topic*
  • Peer Group
  • Quality of Life / psychology
  • Referral and Consultation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Management
  • United Kingdom