Cadmium bioavailability and speciation using the permeation liquid membrane

Anal Chim Acta. 2006 Aug 11;575(2):267-73. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.096. Epub 2006 Jun 6.


The permeation liquid membrane (PLM) technique was used to evaluate cadmium speciation in media resembling natural freshwaters. A planar sheet PLM system was characterized by measuring Cd fluxes in the absence and presence of complexing agents such as citrate, malonate, nitrilotriacetate and the Suwannee River standard humic acid. Comparison with theoretical speciation calculations and the results of a Cd2+ selective electrode, showed that free Cd was correctly measured using the planar sheet PLM within the studied concentration range, i.e. 10(-8) to 10(-4) M. The effect of pH and potentially co-transported ions on Cd transport through the PLM was also studied. An example of the ability of the hollow-fiber PLM (HFPLM) to measure free Cd in the nM range is also presented. In order to evaluate the usefulness of the technique as a predictor of bioavailability, Cd PLM measurements (fluxes) were compared to Cd biouptake (internalization flux) for a freshwater alga, Chlorella kesslerii, in the absence and presence of SRHA. The use of PLM measurements is shown to be an attractive tool to better understand Cd biouptake.