Background: Although previously examined, the potential relationship between preoperative biliary drainage (PBD), intraoperative bile culture (IBC), and postoperative morbidity and mortality rate for pancreatic surgery remains unclear.
Methods: Two hundred twenty patients underwent operation for either benign pancreatic disease or malignant periampullary and pancreatic neoplasms, consisting of pylorus-preserving proximal pancreatoduodenectomy (n = 180), biliary bypass (n = 31), and total pancreatectomy (n = 9). An intraoperative bile specimen was prospectively collected immediately after division of the bile duct and sent for bacteriologic evaluation for both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Morbidity and mortality rates were evaluated.
Results: Of 220 patients evaluated, 113 patients (51.4%) had a positive IBC. Factors associated with a positive IBC were age >70 years (odds ratio [OR], 5.9;95% confidence interval, [CI]: 1.6-22.1; P = .007), history of coronary artery disease (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.5; P = .007), diagnosis of neoplasia (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P =. 03), and PBD (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.06-0.2; P = .0001). Infectious complications (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1-3; P = .03), and wound infection (OR, 2.8; 95% CI,1.4-5.3; P = .002) were greater in patients with positive IBC.
Conclusions: PBD predisposes to a positive IBC. Patients with a positive IBC have a clinically important increased risk of developing both infectious complications and wound infection after pancreatic surgery.