Many sleep disorders can be definitively diagnosed using basic diagnostics in the family practice. Important elements of the diagnosis are the patient's general medical history and acquiring a description of the current phenomenology of the disorder. The use of sleep diaries and information provided by a third party are also helpful. For chronic sleep disorders, patient habits that are not in line with the rules of good sleep hygiene should be regarded as potential perpetuating causes of the disorder. In some cases, simple test procedures can also be useful. The identification or the exclusion of a primary physical or mental disease whose symptom may be the sleep disorder (example: insomnia for underlying depression) is important. In some cases, referral to a specialist or to a sleep medicine centre is necessary.