We have evaluated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaves (LCE) and stem bark (BCE) crude extracts of Zanthoxylum riedelianum (Rutaceae). Different fractions of the stem bark extract (hexane, BCEH; dichloromethane, BCED; ethyl acetate, BCEE; and lyophilized aqueous residual, BCEW) were also investigated. We studied the effects of the extracts and fractions using the rat paw oedema test induced by carrageenan, dextran, histamine or nystatin; the mouse abdominal constriction test; the mouse hot-plate test (only for LCE and BCE); and the mouse formalin test. Both extracts and all BCE fractions displayed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced oedema model, but not for dextran, histamine or nystatin. Considering the analgesic models, both extracts showed antinociceptive activity, but BCE was more active than LCE in models of central pain. All BCE fractions showed significant inhibition in the abdominal constriction test and in both phases of the formalin test. When BCED was submitted to phytochemical procedures it led to the isolation of six lignans (sesamin, methylpluviatolide, dimethylmatairesinol, piperitol-4(')-O-(gamma),(gamma)-dimethylallyl ether, kaerophyllin and hinokinin), and a triterpene (lupeol). Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and its metabolites may have been involved in the mechanism of action of this plant, considering previous studies reporting the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity for the identified lignans, as well as anti-inflammatory activity for lupeol.