Dysfunctional and compensatory prefrontal cortical systems, genes and the pathogenesis of schizophrenia

Cereb Cortex. 2007 Sep;17 Suppl 1:i171-81. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhm069.

Abstract

Cognitive deficits are critical determinants of schizophrenia morbidity. In this review, we offer a mechanistic perspective regarding schizophrenia-related changes observed in prefrontal cortical networks engaged in working memory. A body of earlier work converges on aberrations in putative macrocircuit stability and functional efficiency as the underlying pathophysiology of the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In parsing the dysfunctional prefrontal cortical dynamics of schizophrenia, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging and electoencephalography works suggest that in the context of reduced capacity for executive aspects of working memory, patients engage a larger network of cortical regions consistent with an interplay between reduced signal-to-noise components and the recruitment of compensatory networks. The genetic programming underlying these systems-level cortical interactions has been examined under the lens of certain schizophrenia susceptibility genes, especially catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and GRM3. Variation in COMT, which presumably impacts on cortical dopamine signaling, translates into variable neural strategies for working memory and altering patterns of intracortical functional correlations. GRM3, which impacts on synaptic glutamate, interacts with COMT and exaggerates the genetic dissection of cortical processing strategies. These findings reveal novel insights into the modulation and parcellation of working memory processing in cortical assemblies and provide a mechanistic link between susceptibility genes and cortical pathophysiology related to schizophrenia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Memory, Short-Term
  • Prefrontal Cortex / pathology
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiopathology*
  • Risk
  • Schizophrenia / genetics*
  • Schizophrenia / pathology
  • Schizophrenia / physiopathology*
  • Schizophrenic Psychology