Community integration, social support and life satisfaction in relation to symptoms 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury

Brain Inj. 2007 Aug;21(9):933-42. doi: 10.1080/02699050701553189.


Primary objective: To investigate the relation between psychosocial functioning (community integration, life satisfaction and social support) and symptoms (post-concussion, post-traumatic stress and depression) in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) 3 years after the trauma.

Methods: Population-based follow-up study of 163 patients. At follow-up, an assessment of community integration, social support, life satisfaction and symptoms was made.

Results: Total score of Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was negatively correlated to total score of the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ, r = -0.270, p < 0.001) and to total score of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, r = -0.332, p < 0.001). Life satisfaction (LiSat-11) was negatively correlated to the RPQ (r = -0.459, p < 0.001), to total score of the Impact of Event Scale (IES, r = -0.365, p < 0.001) and to the BDI (r = -0.642, p < 0.001). Low levels of life satisfaction were common at follow-up.

Conclusions: A large proportion of the individuals with MTBI experienced both psychosocial difficulties, with low levels of life satisfaction in particular and symptoms (post-concussion, post-traumatic stress and depression) 3 years after trauma. Since the possibility of pre-injury factors contributing to the condition at follow-up cannot be ruled out, the study indicates that all these factors should be taken into consideration in the management of persons with MTBI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain Injuries / psychology*
  • Brain Injuries / rehabilitation
  • Cognition Disorders / psychology
  • Cognition Disorders / rehabilitation
  • Community Health Services
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / psychology
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / rehabilitation
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life / psychology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / psychology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / rehabilitation*