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, 233 (4767), 961-3

Eruption of the Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Tephra Fall and Lahars

Eruption of the Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia, on 13 November 1985: Tephra Fall and Lahars

J L Naranjo et al. Science.

Abstract

A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 10(10) kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the volcano's ice cap, leading to meltwater floods. The erosive floods incorporated soils and loose sediments from the volcano's flanks and developed into lahars, which claimed at least 25,000 lives.

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