Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part I)

Clin Pharmacokinet. 1991 Nov;21(5):344-56. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199121050-00003.


Calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs widely used in combination with other therapeutic agents. The potential exists for many clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between these and other concurrently administered drugs. The mechanisms of calcium channel antagonist-induced changes in drug metabolism include altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme metabolising activity. Increases in serum concentrations and/or reductions in clearance have been reported for several drugs used with a number of calcium channel antagonists. A number of reports and studies of calcium channel antagonist interactions have yielded contradictory results and the clinical significance of pharmacokinetic changes seen with these agents is ill-defined. The first part of this article deals with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / metabolism
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / pharmacology
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / classification
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacokinetics
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology*
  • Doxorubicin / metabolism
  • Doxorubicin / pharmacology
  • Drug Interactions
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / metabolism
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Lithium / metabolism
  • Lithium / pharmacology
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Midazolam / metabolism
  • Midazolam / pharmacology
  • Theophylline / metabolism
  • Theophylline / pharmacology


  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Doxorubicin
  • Lithium
  • Theophylline
  • Midazolam