Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships between the chamois (Rupicaprini, Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra) and three species of the Caprini (Capra aegagrus hircus, Capra ibex ibex and Ovis ammon musimon) have been studied by multilocus protein electrophoresis. Dendrograms have been constructed both with distance and parsimony methods. Goat, sheep and chamois pair-wise genetic distances had very similar values. All the topologies showed that Capra, Ovis and Rupicapra originate from the same internode, suggesting the hypothesis of a common, and almost contemporaneous, ancestor. The estimated divergence times among the three genera ranged from 5.28 to 7.08 Myr. These findings suggest the need to reconsider the evolutionary relationships in the Capriae.