Intrinsic factor is produced by the gastric parietal cell. Its secretion is stimulated via all pathways known to stimulate gastric acid secretion: histamine, gastrin, and acetylcholine. There is, however, a different mode of secretion for both substances: atropine, vagotomy, and H2 receptor antagonists inhibit both intrinsic factor and acid secretion, but secretin and the hydrogen-potassium ATPase antagonist omeprazole have no effect on intrinsic factor while substantially reducing acid secretion. Cobalamin in food is bound to animal protein. Cobalamin deficiency due to inadequate dietary intake is rarely seen in extreme vegetarians (vegans). In the stomach cobalamin is liberated from its protein binding by peptic digestion and bound to R-proteins. Hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria, whether medically induced or not, may impair cobalamin uptake. The cobalamin-R-protein complex is split by pancreatic enzymes in the duodenum, where cobalamin is bound to intrinsic factor. Pancreatic insufficiency may lead to cobalamin deficiency. Lack of intrinsic factor is the commonest cause of cobalamin deficiency; very rarely, aberrant forms of intrinsic factor are produced, but the clinical syndrome is similar. Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria bind the cobalamin-intrinsic factor complex, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine diminishes cobalamin resorption. Parasitic infections with fish tape-worm and Giardia lamblia are also associated with cobalamin malabsorption. The cobalamin-intrinsic factor complex binds to the ileal receptors in the terminal ileum. Cobalamin absorption may be impaired after resection or by diseases affecting more than 50 cm of the terminal ileum, such as Crohn's disease, coeliac disease, tuberculosis, lymphoma or radiation. There is clearly a wide diversity in the aetiology of cobalamin deficiency, which requires a versatile diagnostic approach.