Background: The clinical importance of systemic bone loss as a contributory factor to alveolar bone loss and the subsequent loss of teeth merits further study, given that osteoporosis and periodontal disease lead to significantly increased morbidity and mortality and higher public expenditure of funds. This case-control study evaluated the association between osteoporosis and periodontal disease.
Methods: The sample consisted of 139 postmenopausal women: 48 in the case group (with periodontal disease) and 91 in the control group (without periodontal disease). The diagnosis of periodontal disease was established following a complete clinical examination using measurements of probing depth, gingival recession and hyperplasia, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding index, and confirmed by panoramic radiography. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made by reviewing densitometry reports obtained previously. Descriptive, stratified, and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data collected. Comparison of proportions was performed using the chi(2) and Fisher tests. Association measurements (odds ratios [ORs]) with and without adjustment for confounding factors and control for effect modifiers were obtained at a significance level of 5%.
Results: The OR(unadjusted) for the principal association was 2.58 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 6.82). In subgroup analyses of the stratified model, the OR(unadjusted) for low education was 6.40 (95% CI: 1.77 to 23.18). When adjusted for smoking habit and age, the OR(adjusted) was 7.05 (95% CI: 1.90 to 26.19), which also was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and low educational levels have a greater chance of having periodontal disease than do those without osteoporosis.