The field of tissue engineering has yielded several successes in early clinical trials of regenerative medicine using living cells seeded into biodegradable scaffolds. In contrast to methods that combine biomaterials with living cells, we have developed an approach that uses culture surfaces grafted with the temperature-responsive polymer poly(N-isoproplyacrylamide) that allows for controlled attachment and detachment of living cells via simple temperature changes. Using cultured cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive surfaces, we have established cell sheet engineering to create functional tissue sheets to treat a wide range of diseases from corneal dysfunction to esophageal cancer, tracheal resection, and cardiac failure. Additionally, by exploiting the unique ability of cell sheets to generate three-dimensional tissues composed of only cultured cells and their deposited extracellular matrix, we have also developed methods to create thick vascularized tissues as well as, organ-like systems for the heart and liver. Cell sheet engineering therefore provides a novel alternative for regenerative medicine approaches that require the re-creation of functional tissue structures.