When ambient temperature is decreased in mammals, autonomic and behavioral heat-gain responses occur to maintain their core temperatures. However, what molecules in cutaneous sensory nerve endings mediate cooling-induced responses is unclear. Recently, transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) has been identified in cell bodies of sensory neurons as low-temperature and menthol-activated cation channel. We hypothesized that TRPM8 mediates cooling-induced autonomic and behavioral heat-gain responses. To activate TRPM8 specifically, we applied 1-10% menthol to the skin of whole trunk in mice instead of cooling and measured core temperatures and autonomic and behavioral heat-gain responses. Solvent of menthol (100% ethanol) was used as control. Significant elevation of core temperatures was observed between 20 and 120 min after menthol application. Pretreatment with diclofenac sodium, an antipyretic drug, did not affect this hyperthermia, indicating that the menthol-induced hyperthermia is not fever. Menthol application induced a rise in oxygen consumption, shivering-like muscle activity, tail skin vasoconstriction (autonomic responses), and heat-seeking behavior. All of them are typical heat-gain responses. These results support the hypothesis that TRPM8 mediates cooling-induced autonomic and behavioral heat-gain responses.