Is the fructose index more relevant with regards to cardiovascular disease than the glycemic index?

Eur J Nutr. 2007 Oct;46(7):406-17. doi: 10.1007/s00394-007-0680-9. Epub 2007 Sep 1.


The glycemic index (G.I.) is a means for categorizing carbohydrates based on their ability to raise blood glucose, subsequently this index has been popularized as a way for selecting foods to reduce the risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We suggest that the G.I. is better aimed at identifying foods that stimulate insulin secretion rather than foods that stimulate insulin resistance. In this regard, fructose has a low G.I. but may be causally linked with the obesity and cardiovascular disease epidemic. The reported association of high G.I. with cardiovascular disease may be due to the association of sugar intake which contains fructose, but which has a high G.I. due to its glucose content. We propose the use of a fructose index to categorize foods and propose studies to determine the effect of low fructose diets as a means to prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / classification
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism*
  • Fructose / administration & dosage
  • Fructose / classification
  • Fructose / metabolism*
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / etiology
  • Obesity / prevention & control


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Fructose