Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inherited aminoaciduria caused by defective cationic amino acid (CAA) transport at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the intestine and kidney. LPI is caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene, which encodes the y(+)LAT-1 protein, the catalytic light chain subunit of a complex belonging to the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Coexpression of 4F2hc (the heavy chain subunit) and y(+)LAT-1 induces y(+)L activity (CAA transport). So far a total of 43 different mutations of the SLC7A7 gene, nine of which newly reported here, have been identified in a group of 130 patients belonging to at least 98 independent families. The mutations are distributed along the entire gene and include all different types of mutations. Five polymorphisms within the SLC7A7 coding region and two variants found in the 5'UTR have been identified. A genuine founder effect mutation has been demonstrated only in Finland, where LPI patients share the same homozygous mutation, c.895-2A>T. LPI patients show extreme variability in clinical presentation, and no genotype-phenotype correlations have been defined. This phenotypic variability and the lack of a specific clinical presentation have caused various misdiagnoses. At the biochemical level, the elucidation of SLC7A7 function will be necessary to understand precise disease mechanisms and develop more specific and effective therapies. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of SLC7A7 mutations and their role in LPI pathogenesis.
(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.