The cross-cultural generalizability of Zuckerman's alternative five-factor model of personality

J Pers Assess. 2007 Oct;89(2):188-96. doi: 10.1080/00223890701468618.


The aim of this study was to analyze the cross-cultural generalizability of the Alternative five-factor model (AFFM; Zuckerman, Kuhlman, & Camac, 1988). The total sample was made up of 9,152 subjects from six countries: China, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. The internal consistencies for all countries were generally similar to those found for the normative American sample. Factor analyses within cultures showed that the normative American structure was replicated in all cultures; however, the congruence coefficients were slightly lower in China and Italy. A similar analysis at the facet level confirmed the high cross-cultural replicability of the AFFM. Mean-level comparisons did not always show the hypothesized effects. The mean score differences across countries were very small.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Germany / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Personality / classification*
  • Personality Assessment / statistics & numerical data*
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Switzerland / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology